Social cuts

A few weeks ago was founded in Romania the „Anarcho-Syndicalist Initiative“. The comrades run an actual and very informative Blog and set as an aim, the popularisation of Anarcho-Syndicalism inside the working class in Romania. We did an interview with our comrades from IAS Romania.

AS-Info Romania: We feel very happy to see, that with the Anarcho-Syndicalist Initiative there is now also in Romania  a serious attempt to make Anarcho-Syndicalism popular among the wageworkers. What led to the foundation of your anarcho-syndicalist initiative? How did you encounter Anarcho-Syndicalism?

IAS-Romania: The need for a genuine class struggle anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist perspective in Romania and also to legitimize the libertarian socialist tradition as whole in Romanian society. After dabbling with some other projects we felt that the current anarchist scene in Romania ignores class struggle anarchism depriving the class nature of anarchism and leaving nothing but an “alternative fashion and lifestyle”out of it. We thought that an ideologically motivated initiative must be created, an initiative that presents actual alternatives to capitalism and statism. We saw no alternatives in the current Romanian anarchist scene, no ideological praxis no unity, nothing that can resemble an actual social and political movement. As for the second part of the question, well you know how they say, anarchists are not made they are born. I personally think that anti-authoritarianism is part of human nature as greed is or submission to authority is and things like that,the problem is that capitalism as an economic system creates a social environment that shapes people in this way,traits such as solidarity, anti-authoritarianism etc. are pushed away for other traits say,submission to authority and greed. So i think i always was an anarchist as far as my desires go,but the collapse of neo-stalinism in Romania and the effects of wild and crude capitalism,made me turn to anarcho-syndicalism’s blend of anti-authoritarianism and class equality.

AS-Info Romania: Are there in your opinion any prospects for the development of a union out of your current initiative? What are your ideas to make the initiative more popular?

IAS-Romania: The initiative is fairly new, only 2 weeks old, i think. And its interesting because it’s so new but the feedback we are getting from is pretty good, so for now we can’t think about building a union. The initative for now is a Romanian anarcho-syndicalist informative bulletin, but the main purpose of it, is to get attention and maybe in the near future build a union from it, so the initiative is just a start. We want to exapand and built a social agenda which can be understood by the Romanian working class, we want to adress everything from day to day labor struggles to alternatives to labor problems and at last alternatives to capitalism as a whole. This is can relate to question one, in Romania we don’t have such an initiative, the stalinist parties still use the same old back in the day argument wich let’s working class issues unattended and let’s people looking back rather then looking onward, towards a new fresh start.

AS-Info Romania: Almost every day the workers and unemployed have to face new attacks by the government and the IMF under the circumstances of the already unacceptable low standard of living. What are in your opinion the suitable means to answer these ongoing deterioration and cuts?

IAS-Romania: As an old man told me once, working people are always in economic crisis, so these measures taken by globalized capitalism in league with the government are not new for Romania’s working class. Romania’s problem is a world problem now that’s why the west has her eyes on us . For 20 years we have the same problems, its not the first time the IMF loans money to us and we implement heavy cuts . Romania for the past 20 years was in constant crisis, neither the quasi-statist social democratic agenda helped us nor the liberal one, the outcomes were and are the same, more unemployed people more concentration of wealth and more division among classes. The opposition in this country is controlled by wealthy bussiness people and the alternatives given by them are laughable, all unions are in the pockets of the parties, so the opposition is not really an opposition. I think there is no hope in Romania , a popular movement must be built by anarcho-syndicalist unions going for general strike and direct takeover of all means of production, working people must take over their businesses and their workplaces and implement worker’s self management at all levels, we must show the capitalists and statists that working people are capable of running their own lifes without the state nor the capitalists.

AS-Info Romania: Which reactions have you received from the small anarchist scene of the country on your initiative? Have you felt supported or was the idea of class-struggle rejected?

IAS-Romania: As i already said, until now its only positive feedback from the few people we know but most of the anarchist scene here is based around the punk scene and has no idea nor interest in class struggle anarchism. I said at question one about anarchism in Romania, most self proclaimed anarchists are punk’s involved in football hooliganism rather then actual activism or punk’s involved in alternative lifestyles so there is no ideological basis here.

AS-Info Romania: Have you already taken action of publicly informing workers about your initiative and which where the reactions received? Do you have a magazine or another kind of publication?

IAS-Romania: As i said, we are very new so we are still expanding, we are not concentrated in one city so its hard to move, but in the near future we are preparing for a publication and agitation inside workplaces and unions. At this stage we are trying to bring people together on this initiative so we can eventually create an actual union.

AS-Info Romania: Thanks a lot for this interview. We wish you success with your initiative!

The Homepage of the Anarcho-Syndicalist Initiative can be reached here:




















Mainstream unions that are active in Bucharest have decided to initiate a strike on October 27th and to call for 80,000 workers to protest against the wage cuts. As well, on October 27th the main opposition party – the Social Democrats – will initiate in the Romanian Parliament a censure motion against the government.

The first impression I have is that political parties are using unions to lunch attacks in their political struggle. Union’s leaders are also fraternizing with politicians and call for action and protest only to support political groups.

The relation between politicians and union’s leaders can’t bring anything in favour of the workers and as we know from the past neither the next government will be interested of worker’s life conditions nor the union’s leaders will call for new protests.

Why should all these worry the workers? It is because the unions that should represent and fight for their rights are lead in a very undemocratic manner and are close to the definition of the yellow unions. It seems also that all their actions are converging to the political support of the big political parties, instead of fighting for worker’s control and work as a democratic inner organisation.

The government is very unpopular since the workers are loosing a large part of their income under the false government slogans of solidarity during the economic crises. The protest from tomorrow as much as will bring nothing much than support for the censure motion – and replacing a parasites class with another – won’t really bring something substantial for the working class.

Update 28.10.2010

Report on protest

The protest meant to support the censure motion of Social Democrats ended yesterday without reaching its goal. Despite the popular support – the censure motion has not met the majority in Parliament. Although the unions involved in the protest are reformist and the union leaders avoid slogans that include class struggle, there were some small group of people that started to chant: ‘Revolution!’ and ‘Capitalist thieves!’ but all these was not mentioned by media.

Gendarmes present at the protest were attacked by syndicalists that tried to break a blockade and 12 syndicalists were arrested. The protest was also marked by the first degree alarm initiated by Internal Affairs Ministry – a decision that is taken in the interes of “national security”. This action of the government shows only that they are fear of people that reached a high level of discontent with government policy.

Diogenes for ASIR

Since 24. August in Hungerstrike. The teacher Cristina Anghel.

Cristina Anghel is the name of a Romanian teacher on hunger strike for 64 days. She refuse to eat since August 24, protesting against the government decision of wage cut. There were a few politician’s declarations urging her to end the protest and not to put her life in danger no more. What these politicians really don’t understand is that their actions are putting her life in danger as their decisions are putting every wage addicted person’s life in danger. With a salary that is less then 300 Euros it is impossible to live. That is the reason why she is accusing the officials for ignoring her and treating her as if she did not exist.

Cristina Anghel is 55 years old, she’s married and she have a daughter. She was admitted in a hospital and is now under medical supervision. She is decided not to end her protest until politicians will understand that people’s life conditions, those conditions caused by government incompetence and cynism, lead people to desperate solutions. Yet Cristina Anghel does not want to commit suicide as one of her colleague – Maria Cracoveanu – did last month, realising she could not live on the reduced wage.

Cristina Anghel’s declarations directly targeting government and the lack of emphaty and humanity of the politicians that are refusing systematically to accept that people’s needs have reached the point where is all about surviving.

“I will not stop until the politicians understand that Romania is our country and we want it the way it should be” she declared to the press. The Romanian president – Traian Basescu declared also to the press that he didn’t heard about the teacher’s hunger strike and that he did not know anything about.

Der PDL-Abgeordnete Silviu Prigoana legte den Gesetzentwurf zur Pressezensur vor.

(ASIR) Die Ereignisse in Rumänien zeigen seit Jahren eine fortgesetzte Abwärtsentwicklung für die absolute Mehrheit der Bevölkerung im Interesse von IWF (Internationalem Währungsfond) und den einheimischen und global agierenden Kapitalisten. Die sozialen Probleme sind enorm, Armut und Unsicherheit sind für viele 100.000de Menschen in Rumänien ständige Begleiter. Nach den großen Entlassungswellen der letzten Monate (bei den Staatsangestellten, vornehmlich den LehrerInnen und bei der Bahn), denen bis zum September 2010 mehrere 10.000 Beschäftigte zum Opfer fielen, hat die Regierung die Entlassung von weiteren 74.000 Angestellten angekündigt. Ein Ende dieser Entwicklung ist nicht in Sicht. Nun fordert eine Gruppe aus Parlamentariern massive Einschränkungen bei der Pressefreiheit.

Abgeordnete der Regierungspartei wollen Kontrollorgan einrichten

Abgeordnete der regierenden Demokratisch-Liberalen Partei (PDL) haben einen Gesetzesentwurf ausgearbeitet, der eine Gesetzesänderung für Print- und Online-Medien vorsieht und die Pressefreiheit abschafft. Demnach soll unter dem Dach des Nationalen Rundfunk Rates (Consiliul Naţional al Audiovizualului) eine Stelle eingerichtet werden, bei der sich alle erscheinenden Print- und Onlinemedien registrieren müssen um eine Genehmigung für ihr erscheinen zu erhalten. Wird diese erteilt, ist sie 7 Jahre gültig. Die Genehmigung – und damit das Erscheinen der Medien – kann aber bei Verstößen gegen das Gesetz für zeitliche Perioden von 1, 3 oder 6 Monaten verboten werden, was im deutlichen Widerspruch zur rumänischen Verfassung steht, die behauptet, das keine Veröffentlichung unterdrückt werden darf. Alle erlaubten Online- und Printpublikationen sollen mit einer Kennnummer versehen werden.

Begründet wird dieser Frontalangriff auf die Pressefreiheit im Entwurf damit, das die Abgeordneten „besorgt seien“. „Wir sind besorgt über Gift im Essen, Gift in der Luft und im Wasser aber nicht über Gift in der Information. In Rumänien ist die Presse frei und das ist gut so. Aber gleichzeitig hat diese Freiheit nicht nur positive Seiten für das tägliche Leben […] nicht selten werden Verunglimpfende, beleidigende und verleumderische Nachrichten publiziert.“

Unter anderem sieht der Gesetzentwurf unter Artikel 53 das folgende vor:

1. Die Lizenz ist für alle im rumänischen Territorium erscheinenden Printmedien erforderlich.

2. Die Lizenz ist für alle Online-Veröffentlichungen erforderlich und beim Server-Hosting. Server Betreiber müssen diese Lizenz überprüfen.

3. Die Lizenz-Nummer erscheint auf jeder Seite in gedruckten oder elektronischen Medien.

4. Die Dauer der Lizenz beträgt 7 Jahre.

5. Die Lizenz für den Druck und für Online Medien dürfen nur mit der Genehmigung des Behördenrates gewährt werden.

Die Gesetzesinitiative geht vom PDL-Abgeordneten Silviu Prigoana aus, der Gründer der Fernsehstation Realitatea TV war und Aktionär der Hygiene-Artikel Unternehmung Rosal Gruppe ist. Sie wird unterstützt von den Abgeordneten Alin Popoviciu, Marius Spânu, Florin Anghel, Dorul Leşe, Brânduşa Novac, Iustin Arghir Cionca, Adrian Niţu şi Corneliu Olar sowie zwei Abgeordneten anderer Parteien. Nämlich Mate Andras von der Partei der Ungarischen Minderheit (UDMR) und Tudor Ciuhodaru von der nationalistischen rumänischen Partei UNPR.

Der Vorstoß gegen die Pressefreiheit kommt nicht gänzlich unerwartet obwohl die rumänischen Medien nicht einmal besonders kritisch sind, was die Regierungspolitik anbelangt. In vielen Fällen flankieren sie sogar Regierungskampagnen – wie z.B. gegen die angeblich überbezahlten, faulen LehrerInnen. Sie haben einen großen Anteil an der Spaltung der Lohnabhängigen der verschiedenen Berufsgruppen in dem sie diese immer wieder gegeneinander auszuspielen versuchen.

Vor einigen Monaten kam es dennoch zu einer Verschärfung des Presserechts. Nachdem mehrere Medien über Prunkgelage und Parties von Politikern und Wirtschaftsbossen berichteten und diese dabei filmten, verbot das rumänische Parlament Foto und Filmaufnahmen von „Privatbesitz“.

Es spricht bislang nichts dafür, dass dieser Gesetzesvorstoß für eine Presse und Medienberichterstattung von Regierungsgnaden gestoppt wird. Ein weiterer Schritt in der Abschaffung von Freiheitsrechten in Rumänien ist damit auf den Weg gebracht, der jeder Diktatur gut zu Gesicht steht.

Anarcho-Syndikalistischer Infodienst Rumänien, 10.09.2010

Siehe auch die rumänischen Presseberichte:„Otrava-informationala”-Ziarele-si-presa-online-ar-putea-fi-suspendate-sau-interzise-prin-lege.htm

Am 1. September bekam das rumänische Gesundheitssystem, das sich bereits eh im Zustand des Kollabierens befindet, einen weiteren Schlag vom Ministerium durch die Regierungsentschließung Nr.615/2010 verpasst. Diese Entschließung beinhaltet die Streichung der Fonds für die Behandlung chronischer Krankheiten. Diese Entscheidung wird nicht nur die Leben derer in Gefahr bringen, die unter solcherart Krankheiten leiden – Beispielsweise die an Tuberkulose erkrankten – eine Erkrankung, die bis heute nicht in Rumänien ausgemerzt wurde – sondern auch diejenigen, die mit diesen Personen in Kontakt kommen.

Mehr noch ist diese Art der Entschließung nur ein kleines repräsentatives Beispiel des kompletten Desinteresses für die öffentliche Gesundheit, auch wenn das Staats-Budget für das Gesundheitswesen große Summen aus den Taschen der BürgerInnen erhält. (In Rumänien gibt es zwei Abgaben für „die Gesundheit“: 10,5% vom Bruttolohn für das „Nationale Gesundheitshaus“ und 5,5% vom Bruttolohn für die Gesundheitsversicherung).

Für all das – ich lese dazu auf den Internet-Seiten der BBC diese Statistiken:

– Rumänien gibt nur 3,6% seines Bruttoinnlandprodukts für die Gesundheitsversorgung aus, weniger als jedes andere Land in der EU;

– Frisch examinierte Ärzte verdienen etwa 400 US-Dollar im Monat;

– Seit 2007 haben an die 5000 Ärzte, das ist einer von zehn, Rumänien in Richtung Westen verlassen;


Es ist nichts Neues hier, das Patienten ihre eigene Behandlung bezahlen wenn sie medizinische Hilfe benötigen, auch wenn sie jeden Monat in das Gesundheitssystem einzahlen – 16% von ihrem Einkommen. Dies Geschieht, da quer durch Rumänien die meisten Krankenhäuser verschuldet sind und es sich nicht leisten können für Medikamente zu zahlen.

Die Folgen der Regierungspraxis für das Gesundheitssystem können sehr gut an den folgenden jüngeren Beispielen aus der Praxis dargestellt werden:

– 23. April – Amelia Anthony – erstklassige Solistin am Nationalen Operetten Theater „Ion Dacian“ wurde beinahe getötet, nach dem sie in ein Koma viel. Im Krankenhaus wurde sie mit gefährlichen Bakterien infiziert;

– 30. April – eine 21 Jahre alte schwangere Frau stirbt im Krankenhaus da sie dort vernachlässigt wurde;

– 23. Mai – ein 9 Jahre alter Junge stirbt im Krankenhaus. Seine Mutter brachte ihn ins Krankenhaus wegen eines gebrochenen Arms.

– 15. August – ein 8 Jahre alter Junge stirbt im Krankenhaus. Er wurde wegen einer Beinverletzung eingeliefert.

Diese Beispiele aus der Krankenhaus-Praxis sind nur die Spitze des Eisbergs und die Ursache dafür ist die kriminelle Politik der Regierung…

Today, September the 1st – the Romanian Health System, which is already at the edge of collapse, is getting another punch from the ministry through the government decision no. 615/2010. That order is about cutting funds for chronic disease treatment. These kind of decisions will put in danger, not only the lives of those who are suffering from – let’s say, tuberculosis – a disease which is not eradicated in Romania yet, but also of those who are coming in contact with this persons.

Moreover, these kind of decision is representing just a small example of the complete lack of interest for the public health although the state budget for the health system is receiving big amounts from citizen’s pockets (there are two incomes for health in Romania: 10,5% from the gross wage for the National House of Health and 5,5% from the gross wage for the medical insurance).

For all that – I’m reading on the BBC Internet page, these statistics:

– Romania spends just 3,6% of Gross Domestic Product on healthcare, less than any other EU country;

– Junior doctors earn around 400 USD per month

– Since 2007, almost 5.000 doctors, 1 in 10, have left Romania for Western Europe


It is nothing new here when patients are paying their own treatment if they need medical care although they pay every month to the health system – 16% from their gain. This is happening because across Romania, the most of the hospitals are in debt and they cannot afford to pay for drugs.

The government policy for health can be represented very well if we’ll take some examples of recent mall praxis cases:

– April 23rd – Amelia Anthony – Prime soloist at the National Operetta Theatre “Ion Dacian” was almost killed after she fell into a coma. She was infected with dangerous bacteria in the hospital;

– April 30th – a 21 years old pregrnant woman died in a hospital because she was neglected;

– May 23rd – a 9 years old boy died in a hospital. His mother took him to the hospital for a broken arm;

– August 15th – an 8 years old boy died in a hospital. He was hospitalized for a leg wound

These examples of mall praxis are only the top of the iceberg and the cause is the criminal policy of the government. .

The Romanian President Traian Basescu (PDL).

The following Interview was first published on the 29th May 2010 in a German Version on

The following Interview about the announced social cuts of the Romanian Government was done with the Comrade Diogenes (30) from Bucharest. He is Anarcho-Syndicalist and a socialworker under contract by the town of Bucharest. From the announced payment-cuts and layoffs he is directly affected. On 19th of may went more then 50.000 workers, teachers and pensioners in Bucharest on the streets. In the shouted slogans they demand the withdrawal of the government. Do you think the demonstration was an success and that the government will take back their decisions of the social- and money cuts? What do you think about the demonstration from 19th of may?

Diogenes: The protests that took place on May 19th were initiated by the trade unions that are operating in Romania. These unions have nothing to do with defending worker’s rights – in my opinion, and they are very close to the definition of yellow unions. Many of these union’s leaders are millionaires and these unions are collecting huge amounts of money (1% from the gross income of an employee); and because the law obliges the employer to sign a collective labour agreement (which must be negotiated with the unions), even if you refuse to contribute in the account of such a union, the Romanian state, will automatically stops 0,6% from your gross salary under the pretext that this money will form a special fund for collective bargaining. There are huge amount of money – millions of Euros per month. That’s pure mathematics, no speculation at all. Administrating all that amount of money – why they need also to rob those people that refuse to join the union? I guess that if you’ll rent the Hermitage Palace for the collective bargaining it would be a cheaper business.

Within these unions there is no transparency at all. The union leaders hold their positions for life, I never heard about sessions within the union and also no elections. The conclusion that necessarily resulting is that these unions are a dubious business and have nothing to do with defending worker’s rights.

What do I think about the protest that took place on May 19th? Sorry to say this, but I think a mob of 50.000 people was taken there without any result and I think also that the opposition sees the current situation as an opportunity to replace the current poor governance with another one – equally poor, but a governance of their own. I am convinced by the fact that all this criticism that is put on the government by the unions, it represents, nothing more but an asset for the opposition. Why would a union leader compromise his position? They will stay for the interest of the opposition because the government is compromised anyway. Until an authentic spirit of rebellion won’t come out to the surface, nothing will be changed.

I don’t know if the government will cancel the wage cut decision but I know that this crisis will be set on the shoulders of the poor however – as it is set right now within this government’s project of wage cuts or within any other alternative project of the government or of the opposition in the parliament. This is the state policy guideline. This is its morality. In the foreign countries, also in Germany, got the demonstration very well realized. Especially in the left radical and the official FAU- report is the anticipation there, that in Romania happen now that, what is in Greece the fact: General strikes and mass protest. Is this expectation realistic?

Diogenes: Such a great expectation will lead to great disappointment if things will follow another path. How should be that possible knowing the activity of the unions that are activating in Romania? General strike and massive protests must start at the initiative of the workers without the interference of these so cold unions – which I have no doubt – will make everything possible to misappropriate the worker’s revolt towards something unproductive and in favour of a government or another.

However – the possibility for massive protest to take place it is born right now, caused by the increasing poverty within the working class: growing unemployment, the inability of borrowers to pay their rates for their ugly, small and very expensive houses, etc. The main conditions for these protests to take place are: 1. to take place spontaneously and 2. To be organised outside these parasitical organisations that are operating under the mask of syndicalism.

The conditions that generate massive protests in Greece are much softer than the harsh conditions that Romanian’s workers have to deal with. We’ll see if the solidarity spirit will be as strong as the solidarity among the Greeks… but we must notice that Greeks have a long tradition in operating with grass roots unions and also they are familiarized with radical ideas, while Romanians are not. However – we must create precedents for these kind of situations and anarchist agitation would be very useful in these times. In the past got generalstrikes several times by the specific branch unions announced. De facto doesn’t followed so many union-members this calls or the mass of the strikers stood at home and brought the protest not on the street and with that not to the public. Are the unions at all able to create real pressure? And in which branches do you see the must success of union-actions?

Diogenes: A large part of the employees that was called to participate remained not at home but at their work program under the pressure of the employers. I said before – the yellow unions are monopolist and all this situation smells as a fraud. Who announced the employees that it will be a large protest? Not the union leaders. The employers did that and the employers also decided who should go to the protest and who should stay at work. There is no communication at all between these leaders of the unions and the members of the unions. Bosses and leaders of the unions have no will and no interest to make real pressure.

However – I was impressed, as you were impressed, by the actions took by pensioners. I know several pensioners associations are activating in Romania but I can’t tell who organised them so well. Driven by despair, they shown solidarity as no one expected. They also announced that Monday, on May 31st they will protest again tied with chains to show their slave condition. Their social category is one of the most disadvantaged and they fight for survival. I don’t exaggerate telling you that 2010 and 2011 would be the years with the most increased number of mortality among the pensioners. With their subsistence pensions they could not afford more than food in the past. With this 15% cut from pensions, with no medical assistance (the government already closed many medical units) and no subventions for heating and other necessities, these years that are coming will be the worst years in the last 60 years for them. This cut is nothing more than genocide. Are colleges of your branch also involved in the protests? Is there a discussion under your colleges about the cuts and for common actions against?

Diogenes: I am not a member of the union and I don’t want to be. In case of reorganisation, because I am not a member of the union I will be the first to become unemployment because the employer will make a list with all those people that will have to go and that list will be negotiated with the union leaders. This is more than sure. Discussions with my colleges are related with these reorganisations and many of them decided to join the union and participate in protests.

Also the discussions about these cuts incite to revolt but a revolt that is repressed inside before it comes out. Propaganda by word is not enough to make this revolt explode just like that. The people must become conscious by their huge power that is at their hand and it is called: solidarity. What is your estimation about the mood under the people? Especially in the working class? Are Topics like class struggle and the fight for an anti-capitalist society on the agenda?

Diogenes: The outraged situations that determine the mood of the people it can not be something else but rage and that is predictable. The unions know that, the government knows that and the opposition take advantage of that. It’s nothing new under the sun. How much is orchestrated in this protest manifestations and how much is authentic – that should be the question. In this situation when people fight for survival the protests should reach and follow the concept of illegality. Having these parasite unions on our back imagine that anti capitalism and class struggle are not common topics on people agenda and revendications are in general limited to alternative solutions, like progressive taxation instead of salary and pension cuts.

The minimum salary here is 705 lei per month. That means – at the National Bank currency – 160 Euros. On the other hand, the prices here are sometime bigger than prices in Germany. After 20 years of capitalism, when you have to pay 65.000 Euros for a one bedroom flat although most of the workers gain around 200, 300 Euros per month – that simple fact should make people realise that capitalism simply doesn’t work. Was there a notable Participation of anarcho-syndicalists or anarchists in the protests?

Diogenes: Not really. I am not organised and there are not grass roots unions here. The anarchist movement in Romania is at its beginnings and it is more active among artistic manifestations and in underground culture. What would be the best, to stop the attacks of the governement?

Diogenes: General strike to paralyse the economy and I would add, as a hobby – sabotage over the banks that robber the whole existence of the people. People have nothing to loose. Anarcho-syndicalism for the future! Thanks a lot for this interview!

First pubslihed here:„die-leute-haben-nichts-zu-verlieren-–-interview-mit-einem-rumanischen-anarchosyndikalisten-zu-den-protesten-gegen-die-sparmasnahmen-der-regierung/